Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management
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  • Total Quality management:

  • Overview of Total Quality Management:

If we have to see that our focus must be on quality.

We must try to produce a good quality product, for that quality management is important for any organization.

So that the customer is satisfied with your product and they buy your product.

They are loyal to over the company and repeats their purchases year after year.

Maybe whenever they want to change the product must come to your company only as a loyal customer of your brand.

That we have to ensure and therefore you must appreciate the concept of quality and how quality can be implemented in an organization.

That is something important that every engineer every manager must know and in that context.

There is a management philosophy management thought which is called Total Quality Management(TQM). 

In today’s competitive world where for a single product there are 10-15 different companies manufacturing the same product.

The concept of quality has assumed much more significance as it used to be in the last maybe 40-50 years.

Therefore a product with good quality will only be able to sustain its market share otherwise it is going to be obsolete from the market on its own.

There is no maybe reason that the product must not be obsoleted if it is not a good quality product.

If we see the quality products have lived the test of times and are still being used and those which were not able to satisfy the customer which were not designed as per the quality,

Which were not manufactured as per quality specifications have disappeared into oblivion?

Therefore the  Total Quality Managemen concept is an important concept and as a manager, engineers and all of us must emphasize.

This concept all across the organization.

So that everybody who is associated with the organization must effectively and efficiently work towards the objectives of quality.

The organization also moves forward it progresses which will automatically lead to the progress and improvement of the individuals associated with the organization.

We will try to understand this basic concept that what is all about total quality management.

What is the definition?

At least the basics of Total Quality Management or  The philosophy of Total Quality Management

Now the customer expectations are supreme in today’s scenario:

  • Deliver the customer what they exactly want 
  • First time and Every time
  • Nothing Less, Nothing More
  • Quality Target = 100%
  • Acceptable Quality = 99%

So as a manufacturer it is your responsibility or duty to ensure the quality of conformance and performance.

As well as to ensure the good quality of that design which is much more dependent upon:

The customers’ feedback:  



Direct needs and

The implied needs. 

We have to deliver the customer what they exactly want.

Then your focus must be that we must be able to produce the first time first product first time the right product.

We must focus on eliminating the waste in terms of defective items or production of defective items nothing less nothing more.

It should not be more because then it will add to the inventory cost also we must not add order less.

So that there is a condition or a situation of a stock out and the production or the operations have to be stopped.

Similarly, from a quality point of view also it should be nothing less and nothing more.

The quality target must be a hundred percent, acceptable quality maybe 99%.

We must focus on 100% quality only with the type of technology, inspection metrology, and instrumentations available with us.

These days we must focus on a hundred percent quality:

For example,

If a 100 cm scale is the exact dimension exact specification of the product.

Can you accept a scale of 99 cm length?

So as a customer you will never accept that scale.

Your focus has to be 100% quality.

  • About Total Quality Management:

Total Quality Management

This concept of total quality management and as you see it is made up of three words.

Total, Quality, and Management

  • Total: Made up of the whole
  • Quality: Degree of excellence a product or service provides
  • Management: Act, art, or manner of planning, controlling, directing…

Therefore, Total Quality Management is the art of managing the entire to achieve excellence.

  • Total:

Total means it is made up of the whole which means that if an organization decides to go for quality or to go for Total Quality Management.

It cannot be in bits and pieces or it cannot be department wise is it has to be whole that is total.

  • Quality:

Then quality all of us know the degree of excellence a product or service provides.

So, quality as we have seen that it is fitness for use.

  • Management:

Management is our actions.

We have to plan in such a way that this quality product is produced in the organization and is delivered to the customer.

And it satisfies the intended function for which the customer is buying the product.

So the act art or manner of planning, controlling and directing with the objective of ensuring the quality.

Total Quality Management is the art of managing the whole or complete to achieve excellence in terms of product.

Why product word is used?

Because if the product is of good quality, it means that the proceeding operations and materials procurement and all other functions are of good quality.

Why? Because a product is a reflection of the procedures and the operations that have faults that have been employed to produce this product.

For example, for an educational institute, the product is the student who graduates from that institute or the college.

So if the student comes out with flying colors and the company which has hired that individual.

Or that student is extremely satisfied with the performance of that student or the aluminous of a particular Institute.

The company will definitely be proud of the organizers.

The student as well as the company will definitely be proud of the Institute from where the student has graduated.

There will be no doubt about the capability of the Institute to produce wonderful intelligent and brilliant professionals who are going to serve the organization.

So the process of graduation will be certified that yes the process is good the sessions or the lectures.

Or the process examination system everything is okay.

Therefore only the product in the form of the graduating student which has come out is of good quality.

Therefore your focus has to be on each and every step involved in the overall product development cycle.

So that our total quality is ensured.

  • Another definition of Total Quality Management:

TQM can be seen as the process, used to manage the change in an environment that will ensure that the company reaches the goal of TCI. 

  • What is TCI?

TQM is seen as the process as to why a process because it is ensuring continuous improvement.

So the process is continuous it has seen as a process that is used to manage the change in the environment.

Now, this process will be company-wide it will be plant-wide it will be organization-wide.

It will be in totality ensuring that you change for better methods, inspection, HR managing and management, and financial procedure.

So the process is of change and TQM is will ensure it can be seen as a process used to manage the change in the environment.

That will ensure why do we need to change?

Why do we need to change all these procedures all or processes?

In order to ensure that the company reaches the goal of TCI 

TCI is a total continuous improvement.

Total –  Involves all people in the organization.

Continuous – Forever.

Improvement – 

  • We need to eliminate the waste,
  • We need to really reduce the variations in the product or
  • Innovation or creativity among the employees.

So we focus on TCI.

It is a process that will lead to this change in the overall lead to or manage the change which will lead to the improvement in the TCI.

Or we can say total continuous which will lead to total continuous improvement.

We can see that it is company-wide.

It is a continuous process and it is leading to a positive in the organization.

And this change will automatically lead to better productivity, employee satisfaction, and nutshell better profits for the organization.

  • Another very good definition given by IES of Total Quality Management.

“TQM is a management approach of an organization, hooked up on the participation of all its members 

and aiming at lengthy time duration success through client delight and benefits to the persons of groups and society.”

Another two words are again coming total that is the participation of all its members or total word is coming there. 

And aiming at long term success  which is a continuous process.

So long term success how it can be achieved through customer satisfaction and benefits to the members of the organization and society.

  •  Goal of Total Quality Management:

Total Quality Management

“Do the right things right the first time and each & every time.”

So do the right things, this management approach will help you to identify that, what are the right things to be done in an organization?

Then doing the right things right which means we have identified what needs to be done.

Then we have to do it perfectly efficiently and effectively.

The first time it should not be an iterative a process it should be done right the very first time and every time.

So do the right things right the first time and every time.

  • Six C’s of Total  Quality Management:

  • Commitment
  • Culture
  • Continuous improvement
  • Cooperation
  • Customer focus
  • Control
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management
  • Commitment:

Commitment in which means that total commitment from the top or the strategic team to the operational team of the organization.

So the whole commitment must be there. 

  • Culture:

Quality culture must be there.

Each and every employee must be aware of the concept of quality and must be aware of what is his role in ensuring the quality of the product.

Where he is participating in ensuring the quality of the product so the quality culture is very important.

  • Continuous improvement:

We have to manage the system in such a way that continuously we are towards the path of improvement.

  • Cooperation:

Cooperation among the various stakeholders is very important for ensuring quality.

  • Customer focus:

Customer focus is the most important point.

From the TQM point of view that your approach must be customer-centric.

What the customer actually wants and if we are able to satisfy the quality needs of the customer.

The company will definitely move on to the path of progress and the projected trajectory.

We can say or will be towards the profits as well as financial stability.

  • Control:

We can see that the six C’s if we combine them together.

If there is a commitment from the top there is a quality culture within the organization.

The organization is focused on always improving the quality continuously improving the quality.

And there is cooperation among all the various departments within the organization.

The designs the operations are focused on the customer’s point of view or the customers’ needs and requirements and in.

And if there is a control on whatever changes have been planned documented executed.

If there is a control over these changes definitely the TQM philosophy TQM approach TQM process will yield the desired results for the organization.

  • Productivity and Total Quality Management:

  • Traditional view:

Quality cannot be increased without full-size losses in productivity.

Usually, we feel that if in order to ensure quality again and again.

We are checking the quality of the product we have different inspection state may be stationed within the production line.

So normally people feel more inspection more breakages do not add any value to the product and lose it loses time also sort of productivity becomes less.

  • Total Quality Management approach:

TQM approach that improved quality will lead to improved productivity.

So we can plan we can change our inspection procedures in such a way that we are able to inspect it also.

And we are not compromising on the productivity of the production line also.

TQM will help you to design your production line in such a way that we are able to achieve the dual motto of inspection and high productivity also.

  • The traditional view that quality cannot be improved without compromising productivity.

 It is a completely false view and these days companies are focusing on Total Quality Management.

And TQM implementation is leading to higher productivity as compared to the traditional approaches of management.

  • Basic Principles of Total Quality Management:

  • The customer makes the ultimate determination of quality.

So as we have seen the six C’s of Total Quality Management customer focus must be there if we want to implement the TQM philosophy.

  • The top administration ought to provide leadership and support for all best initiatives.

So as per six C’s, we can say commitment and culture are coming here in point number two.

The top management commitment must be there and there should be a quality culture within the organization. 

  • Preventing variability is the key to producing excessive quality.

Now preventing variability if you see the control aspect is coming here.

How we can prevent variability by exercising control? 

So the C of six C’s of TQM is coming into point number three that is preventing variability is the key to producing high quality by exercising control.

  • Quality goals are a shifting goal thereby requiring a commitment toward non-stop improvement.

So C for continuous again is coming as six C’s of quality or Total Quality Management.

  • Improving quality requires the institution of tremendous metrics we ought to speak with information and data no longer simply opinions or gut feelings.

So our intuitive appeals or what we feel as an individual.

It does not play any role the things must be run by procedure, 

the systems month must be run by run by rules regulation policies and procedures.

Quality is being discussed it must be discussed in terms of facts and data instead of maybe feelings or gut feelings or intuitive appeal.

So the Total Quality Management approach will focus on facts and data in inspiring instead of focusing on the gut feelings or intuitive appeal of individuals.

  • The Three Aspects of Total Quality Management:

Now the three aspects of TQM.

  • Counting 
  • Customers
  • Cultural
Total Quality Management
  • Counting:

Tools, techniques, and training in their use for analyzing, understanding, and solving quality problems.

As we have seen our approach must be focused on facts and data.

It should not be just rhetoric that we want to implement Total Quality Management.

We must have the relevant data also relevant facts also available with us.

If we want to successfully implement the TQM philosophy or approach.

So counting will give us those facts and data.

Counting what are the tools, what are the techniques and training in their use for the analysis.

So maybe what are tools techniques one thing, how to use them.

Training must be given to the employees and then if that data whatever information we are deriving from these tools and techniques.

 It can be used for inspecting perception and solving quality problems.

  • Customer:

Quality for the target customer as a driving force and central concern.

So whatever operations we are doing within the organization must be focused on the customer as the king.

That we have to produce a product which satisfies the demand of the customer.

  •  Cultural:

Shared values and beliefs expressed by leaders that define and guide quality.

So these three aspects we must focus on facts and figures and data and tools and techniques.

That is the counting maybe that is giving some specific details to the quality that is the counting than the customers and finally the quality culture.

  • Total Quality Management versus Continuous Improvement:

TQM is the management procedure used to make continuous improvements to all functions.

TQM represents an ongoing non-stop commitment to improvement.

The basis of whole excellent is a management philosophy that helps assembly customer necessities via continuous improvement.

  • Continuous improvement versus Traditional approach:


Traditional Approach

Continuous Approach

Market- share focus 

Customer focus


Cross-functional teams

Focus on “who” and “why”

Focus on “what” and “how”

Short-term focus

Long-term focus

Status quo focus

Continuous improvement

Product focus 

Process improvement focus


Incremental improvements

Fire fighting



We can see in the traditional approach market share is the focus but in a continuous approach, the customer is the focus.

Similarly in the case of a traditional approach focused on but the continuous approach is focused on cross-functional teams.

This means that people from different specializations combine together to ensure the quality of the product.

So another most important fact is that the traditional approach is focusing on the short-term.

Whereas the continuous approach is a long- term focus or maybe our focus will be on continuous improvement in the case of TQM.

So mostly in the case of the traditional approach, we go for firefighting.

There is a problem we start addressing that problem.

But in a continuous approach, we will be going for problem-solving one by one.

And this problem-solving approach will be a continuous endeavor in the organization.

In the traditional approach, we focus on the product or the product is the focus.

Whereas in continuous strategy technique enchancment is the focus.

If our process is correct product automatically is the output of this correct process.

So if the process is a wonderful process it is an excellent process.

Since the defect-free process is any other adjective you can use then automatically the product will be of good quality.

And in a continuous approach, our focus is on designing the system in such a way that it only gives out the best product only.

  • Total Quality Management system:

Continuous improvement is the objective.

The principles are customer focus, process improvement, and total involvement of each and every employee and system of the organization.

And what are the elements that can help us to achieve these objectives?

  • Leadership, 
  • Education and training,
  • Supportive structure, 
  • Communications,
  • Reward and recognition and 
  • Measurement.

In some of the companies, we have quality circles and there is an award scheme.

Whichever quality circle will give the best possible solution to our existing problem the awards can be given. 

So measurement is also which is that control part of TQM.

We can check that, whether whatever changes we have proposed what type of benefits can be derived out of them.

The TQM system’s objective is continuous improvement.

Then there are certain guiding principles that will help us and there are elements that we need to focus on in order to meet the objective of continuous improvement.

 The best way to implement TQM is different approaches are possible in the following manner:

  • The soft approach or Hard approach, 
  • Rhetoric or Concrete actions,
  • Total organization or a Pilot project, 
  • General TQM implementation or a specific TQM implementation 
  • The bottom-up approach or Top-down approach

But in general, if we say it has to be implemented in a way that everybody is involved in the TQM endeavors.

So in practice, we can say summarize interaction between the different approaches is needed that a single approach may not give us the desired results.

We can combine these all approaches to get the desired results.

  • Now there are seven steps of Total Quality Management:

  • Select a theme,
  • Grasp the present system, 
  • Analyze the present situation,
  • Set the countermeasures into motion,
  • Determine the effectiveness of the counter-measures.
  • Use standard operating procedures and 
  • Plan for future action.

So this is a standard approach usually followed whenever we want to bring a change.

We have to first understand the current way of doing the work or current way of managing the operations.

Then we have to see how better we can manage them.

What are the alternatives available with us then we pick and choose to analyze the alternatives?

We scrutinize the alternatives and finally, we feel this is going to be the best alternative in order to improve the existing condition.

And then we implement the chosen alternative and see how it works and then we document all the processes.

So that in future we can look at the document.

And see how we have designed this method or this process which has yielded the desired results.



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