What Is Knowledge Management?
In this article the topic to be cover are in the following manner:
- Introducing the concept knowledge management.
- Why knowledge management is required through the organization?
- System life cycle that how knowledge management system is developed over a some time.
- Why the organization is looking for aligning knowledge management with business strategy.
- Now going to introduce the concept of knowledge management.
And then you can see how this knowledge management has evolved over a period of time.
What is knowledge?
If you look at the concept of knowledge it has an origin called genesis from the data.
• Data – Collection of unprocessed facts, a set of discrete facts about events.
Data is something that is unprocessed it could be related to facts or events anything.
A number of students in the class.
Maybe15 or 20 means that you talking about the data.
But it is now not a processed fact.
But data is converted into information.
• Information-organized or meaningful data.
When we try to organize this data in a meaningful way.
So for example, if we say there are 15 students in the class then we can classify or organize them into different categories like:
How many boys are there or how many girls are there?
So in that way, this becomes the information.
• Knowledge-Information that is relevant, actionable and contextual.
Strong experiential and reflective elements,
Good leverage and increasing returns,
Evolves over time with experience.
Now, this information becomes knowledge when it is relevant, actionable and contextual.
By saying that it is contextual or relevant or actionable is that when information is used in a particular context.
You know that in any Institute number of girls students is 20% and a number of boys students 80% of students are there.
Now how are you going to use this information for taking positive actions?
So it has to have a context that it must be relevant that you are going to make use of it.
And then that information you can act upon it that is why we say that it should be actionable also.
So when we are converting information into knowledge then there is a thin difference between information and knowledge that is information is organized data.
But when we make use of that information in a particular context which is good for you or the organization then it becomes knowledge.
Let me give you another example,
How to write a software code you are a software engineer.
Now as a software engineer you are going to write code and for that what kind of information that you need is how to write code.
For that, you have information about what programming language.
But this programming language just gives you information about the way to write the program in a particular context.
Now suppose your organization asked you to write a program for a customer for a particular specific act.
This becomes the context that what is the use of it why you are going to write it.
And then when you write a program that is going to be useful to the customer using coding information.
Then it becomes an action.
Now, this knowledge has characteristics like it has a strong experiential and reflective element.
What does it mean?
Strong Experiential and Reflective Element:
When we say that it has a strong experiential it means the information that you make use is converted into knowledge-based on what you call experience.
So out of the experience, your knowledge accumulates your capacity to convert information into knowledge improves.
Reflective factors that you are going to reflect on positive things based on the information.
Suppose you have certain information that this is going to happen to have a nice.
You be aware of that new technology has come now how this technology is going to affect your organization.
So you are going to reflect upon that and then you see whether you are going to make use of technology or not.
It has a reflective issue additionally and why companies are going for the use of knowledge?
Because knowledge provides you with good leverage it means with the help of this knowledge you can have a competitive edge over your competitors.
It could be individual or it could be grouped or it could be organizations and it can provide you with better returns.
Good leverage and increasing returns:
The objective of having in the knowledge management system is to see how you can make use of knowledge to achieve a competitive advantage.
To get better returns to increase efficiency and productivity.
And that is why we are using this best knowledge management system.
What do you mean by saying it is dynamic:
Dynamic means what the dynamic means that the nature of knowledge keeps on changing.
The form of understanding that we use to have70’sto 90’s associated to any area has long gone under significant change.
So that is why we say that the nature of knowledge keeps on changing.
If you look at google which provides a lot of information about particular activities.
Now when we say that it is dynamic if you appear at the nature of knowledge on any situation or in any domain.
And you search on google you will discover the latest information on the modern day expertise in that specific field.
What does it mean, it potential that the nature of knowledge keep on changing because it is updated over a period of time.
So new knowledge is coming which should be beneficial greater relevant.
Evolves over time with experience:
The nature of knowledge keeps on changing.
And as you grow as you learn and as you experience the kind of knowledge that to accumulate and store with you keep on changing.
So knowledge is very important and however to manage this knowledge in work is going to change.
Because with technology, economy, or environment.
Knowledge Management is also a human capital
Why did we say that it is human capital?
Because knowledge resides with the people or it could also reside with the group or resides with the organization.
So when we say that knowledge is human capital it means the knowledge mainly resides with the people.
Now if you want to see the difference between information and knowledge is the level of understanding.
So Information simply why do you setup data into an geared up and significant way.
But when you are going to make use of that information for doing, acting, or for making certain decisions then it becomes knowledge.
Now we will see the differences between the different kinds of concepts.
We have been starting with facts that are the data, information, knowledge, wisdom, or something more to that.
Put diagram from video 8:39 minute
Now if you look at this hierarchy it is like a pyramid.
The bottom of it is that information more to that in facts that is the data.
From facts, we go to the next stage that is information that is the meaningful, business enterprise of the data.
Then we moved to intelligence.
Intelligence is that on the other hand we are going to make use of it it shows your capacity to make use of that information for doing some sure actions.
It potential that you are going to infer some thing from that data based totally on your capacity that is your mental intelligence or mental potential and that is what we name it as knowledge.
Moving to subsequent is wisdom.
So when you have done something then you experience or enlightenment that is what we call wisdom.
And then move to further if you look at that two lines that are drawn parallelly along with this pyramid.
It shows two things one is that volume completeness and objectivity.
If you look at these things what will happen the down the arrow that is coming from top to bottom.
It capacity at the backside of the pyramid you will find data which is more objective which is greater complete.
The more you move up the level of completeness goes down.
It means that in terms of volume, completeness and objectivity facts are at the best and then you move up in the hierarchy.
When you look at the value the value resides more in knowledge, wisdom, and something like that.
But if you look at this structure it is less structured and it is more subjective.
Because the data and the information that we have this is more organized and complete and whole structure compared to the knowledge.
Because they are going to make use of that in a particular context and the kind of wisdom that we have.
So if you look at the difference in terms of objectivity and subjectivity you will find the data is more objective.
And while know-how and go past knowledge is more subjective.
Types of Knowledge:
Types of knowledge actually classified into three different categories are in the following manner:
• Shallow and Deep Knowledge
• Explicit and Tacit Knowledge
• Procedural and Episodical Knowledge
1.)Shallow and deep knowledge:
That is whether the knowledge at the surface level or at the deep level that is what we call shallow or deep.
Shallow knowledge means that you have very specialized knowledge about a particular thing.
And the deep knowledge is that you have very precise knowledge which is received through gaining knowledge of through experience.
That is the difference between the shallow and the deep knowledge.
2.) Explicit and Tacit knowledge:
Explicit that is notified in some form itis this documented knowledge that is available to you in the form of a book, manuals, guidelines, and these kinds of things.
Tacit knowledge is winded in the mind.
What does it mean?
Tacit knowledge is that kind of knowledge actually which decides in the mind of the people
3.) Procedural and Episodical Knowledge:
Procedural means how to do certain things.
Episodic capability that you have learned via experience memory is this kind of thing.
And then the query is how you are going to chunk knowledge which may want to be useful to you.
Procedural knowledge is much more shallow than it only tells you how to perform a task.
You are going to use a computer to write something on a word is means that the kind of knowledge that is required.
So knowledge of how to do a venture that is essentially motor in nature.
The same knowledge is used over and above whenever you want to write you will open the computer.
You will fix the procedure which is known to you.
And you should go through this procedure and open the word file and make use of it to write.
So that is what call procedural knowledge which is at the surface level.
Now but you do not know how this computer works so that is basically the deep knowledge.
So this is declarative knowledge.
That is available with you whenever you want to recall it
That is related to short term memory which you can easily remember which can be retrieved memory.
And itis good because at the first stage you should know:
What is there?
Which you can without difficulty remember?
Which is going to be useful for you?
Which can be used by you for doing certain things?
So that is what we call declarative knowledge which is known to you which is available to you in your short term memory.
At a moment’s reflection, you can get them.
Semantic knowledge is basically when you move further to the deeper part of the knowledge that is called semantic knowledge.
And this kind of knowledge suggests that knowledge is organized and classified into different categories.
Based on the nature of the concepts that is a fact that the concept or with a relationship.
So based on this concept, fact, or relationship you are going to organize knowledge into a different category.
It is essentially related to organization classification and codification of knowledge.
It helps you to attain knowledge from the database from your memory or some thing it is.
Episodic Knowledge that is organized not by conception relationships.
But it is more experiential in nature it is chunk by episodes.
You remember certain episodes that are related to this when we talk to a supervisor you based on your experience.
So in these conditions, these are the things that need to be done and that is how we should be working.
That is based on your memory which is there what you do keep that information on intuition, experience, and learning.
And that has much more complied but it is not that easy to extract.
Because it is long term memory and it is very difficult sometimes to retrieve that kind of information.
But you need to do it because that is very useful and that is at a deeper level.
That is how we have decided to see how the knowledge moves from the shallow to deep.
And what are the different types of knowledge from procedure to episodic
More we will discuss Explicit and Tacit knowledge:
Two major types of knowledge:
Explicit knowledge which deals with objective, rational, and technical knowledge.
The goals, objectives, papers, and reports.
So most of the explicit knowledge is actually available in a documented form.
So for example book in the library whatever information available, it is explicitly given in the book and you can have it.
It is explicit in the sense that you can go through it you can read it you can make use of it and you can easily codify it.
Your library is an example of explicit knowledge because books are organized and classified using a coding system.
And that it is we say that it is more structured.
So explicit knowledge is more structured and it is organized, codified, and classified in such a way so that retrieval is very easy.
You can easily manipulate it share it or taught it or learn it.
Tacit knowledge is highly unstructured you can say because it resides in the head of the people.
Once it resides in the head of the people it means that it is subjective.
It is based on the experience knowledge intuition that a person has and it is not documented in any form.
Youcannotget it easily and it is very personal because it is with anyone and how to do it.
But the processes are not documented in a particular form.
If a individual does certain matters the usage of positive tactics now these tactics are recognised to that person only.
If that technique is recognized to that man or woman solely then what will happen.
He will use those processes to perform but these processes are in the mind of that particular individual and how to do it.
It is not available in a documented form.
So it is not formalized or documented because it is very very personal the way the person is doing the job.
What is there in when you say that it is tacit could be associated to experiences and that mental math that you form about doing certain things:
How to do things secrets related to traits,
All this is related to tacit knowledge.
So now what we have achieved is we have tried to take a look at what is expertise and what are the distinct sorts of knowledge.
The most important thing here is to talk about explicit and tacit knowledge.
So explicit is that it is handy in some form, tacit is that is now not available which is not formal which is with the people.
Some of the principles on which is a knowledge management system works:
Certain principles related to knowledge management systems are in the following manner:
So that you can build an effective knowledge management system.
• Knowledge influences success:
Now whether you are talking about specific knowledge or tacit expertise each are required.
And if you have this kind of knowledge it is going to help you to bring success to your internal achievement, goals, and objectives that you have whatever it is.
So knowledge is going to influence success.
If you have knowledge whether it an explicit form or tacit form it helps you to achieve success in terms of achieving goals and objectives.
Another vital factor is that knowledge is more important tacit knowledge or explicit knowledge.
Whentacit knowledge or explicit knowledge since we have identified these two types of knowledge.
• Tacit is something that is non-public and
• Expicit knowledge that is codified.
It is modified because it is available in the form that is documented either as a video or as a book or in digital form.
So that it is available to others for use.
But personalized know-how is with the character and it is no longer available to use for others.
So personalized knowledge and explicit knowledge both are very important.
• The knowledge that resides in the head of the people:
What is to be done if we have to see how to formalize the knowledge that resides in the head of the people.
There is a need to see how we can transform this tacit which is more personal in nature into some explicit form that is important.
• Two types of knowledge:
Codifiedand personalizes the knowledge that one that is explicit the other one that is tacit.
Now there is a need to have more explicit knowledge that could be used by others.
Because the knowledge is available only in a tacit form then others may not be able to use it.
So the idea is to transform tacit knowledge into explicit form.
• Knowledge sharing requires a Conduitto to happen systematically:
How does it happen that is through sharing.
So when we share our knowledge with others then others also come to know about that.
It is very important to share our knowledge with each other.
Now that there are two ways to share the knowledge it could be through using face-off, face to face at a personal level, or you also use technology to share knowledge.
When you are going to share knowledge at a personal level it is going to be more tacit.
Because as you are passing on that knowledge from one person to another person.
But again it is not going to be available in explicit form.
• Technology is the conduit:
In order to make it available in explicit form, you are going to make use of technology.
So if you are going to record certain processor bring certain things.
Then that knowledge related to that particular process is captured using technology.
So technology becomes the carrier of the means of expression of that particular knowledge of the process.
• Knowledge sharing requires trust:
When you want to share knowledge with other people especially at a personal level what does it require?
It requires trust if you have trust in the other person only then you can share knowledge with other people.
But if the knowledge is available in an explicit form then these things may not be required.
Because then it is available in some form and you can make use of it.
• Knowledge management embraces the Knowledge-based organization and learning organizations:
Now we are talking about knowledge management then we have to see whether organizations are going to make use of knowledge.
Whether they going to have a knowledge system or not.
And whether they want to make use of knowledge in order to create innovatively and perform well.
So most of the organizations today which are working in a knowledge economy are going to be called.
And most of these knowledge-intensive organizations like IT companies, R&D institutions, Labsthey are into these businesses of knowledge management.
They have developed and created a system for knowledge management.
And for that, they have created a framework that how they are going to acquire create, store, and disseminate.
So that the knowledge can be used.
• Knowledge management planned architecture frameworks:
A plan architecture that helps you to retrieve and make use of knowledge from the storage.
Now if you look at knowledge as if different kinds of knowledge as if that we have it could be classified as codified or personalized knowledge.
The codified knowledge is basically that kind of knowledge which is owned by the organization.
But the personalized knowledge or other forms of knowledge is not legally owned and it is written by different sets of people or groups or the organizations.
Now, most of the codified knowledge which is legally owned by the organizations may include patents, copyrights, trademarks, and documents.
And this is very important because unless you have these things you cannot grow and develop yourself.
That is why you have copyrights for books,
You have trademarks you have trade secrets,
You have patents which you can make use of it and
This is your asset in terms of knowledge.
But that is only a part of it most important is what you call other forms of knowledge.
Which is relying on relationships, communities of practices which people follow,
the best practices the benchmarks the experiences, expertise, and other theoretical knowledge the database in which is there with the organization.
Now the thing is that we need to ensure that how to make use of a large chunk of these kinds of things.
Which is related to relationships, practices, experience, or database.
To convert them into a formal system of knowledge that is more explicit which can be used by the organization.